Map

Name

Official name

Kingdom of Cambodia

1989 to 1993

The State of Cambodia

1979 to 1989

The People Republic of Kampuchea

1975 to 1979

The Democratic Kampuchea

1970 to 1975

The Khmer Republic

Until 1970

The Kingdom of Cambodia

Facts

Regime

Constitutional monarchy

Capital city

Phnom Penh

Area

181 035 Km sq

Population

11.63 millions (July 1999 est.)

Religion

Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

Language

Khmer

Ethnics

Khmer( 94%), Chinese (4%),Vietnamese (1.1%) and other ethnic groups

Administration

20 provinces or Khet

3 cities or Krong

163 districts or Srok; 12 wards or Khand

1,456 communes or Khum

12,864 villages or Khum

1995

1998

1999

People

Population, total

10.7 million

11.5 million

11.8 million

Population density (people per sq km)

60.6

..

..

Population growth (annual %)

3.1

2.3

2.2

Life expectancy at birth, total (years)

..

53.8

..

Fertility rate, total (births per woman)

..

4.5

..

Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)

..

101.6

..

Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births)

..

143.0

..

Malnutrition prevalence (% of children under 5)

..

..

..

Urban population (% of total)

14.2

15.2

15.6

Population density, rural (people per sq km)

248.0

..

..

Illiteracy rate, adult male (% of males 15+)

45.7

42.6

41.4

Illiteracy rate, adult female (% of females 15+)

83.1

80.1

78.9

School enrollment, primary (% net)

99.9

..

..

School enrollment, secondary (% net)

38.8

..

..

School enrollment, primary, female (% net)

99.9

..

..

School enrollment, secondary, female (% net)

30.0

..

..

Environment

Surface area (sq km)

181.0 thousand

..

..

Forest area (sq. km)

98,300.0

..

..

Annual deforestation (% of change)

1.6

..

..

Freshwater resources per capita (cubic meters)

..

..

..

CO2 emissions, industrial (metric tons per capita)

0.0

..

..

Safe water, urban (% of urban population with access)

..

..

..

Sanitation, urban (% of urban population with access)

..

..

..

Commercial energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)

..

..

..

Electric power consumption (kwh)

..

..

..

Economy

GDP at market prices (current US$)

2.9 billion

2.9 billion

3.1 billion

GDP growth (annual %)

7.6

1.0

4.5

GNP, Atlas method (current US$)

2.7 billion

2.9 billion

3.0 billion

GNP per capita, Atlas method (current US$)

250.0

260.0

260.0

Inflation, GDP deflator (annual %)

..

..

..

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)

52.1

50.6

..

Industry, value added (% of GDP)

13.9

14.8

..

Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

34.0

34.6

..

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)

31.3

34.1

..

Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

48.7

43.6

..

Gross domestic investment (% of GDP)

21.8

15.0

..

Current revenue, excluding grants (% of GDP)

..

..

..

Overall budget deficit, including grants (% of GDP)

..

..

..

Money and quasi money growth (annual %)

43.6

15.7

17.3

Technology and infrastructure

Telephone mainlines (per 1,000 people)

0.5

2.3

..

Telephone average cost of local call (US$ per three minutes)

0.0

..

..

Personal computers (per 1,000 people)

0.5

..

..

Internet hosts (per 10,000 people)

0.0

0.1

0.1

Roads, paved (%)

7.5

..

..

Aircraft departures

..

..

..

Trade and finance

Trade (% of GDP, PPP)

14.9

12.5

..

Trade in goods as a share of goods GDP (%)

..

..

..

High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports)

..

..

..

Net barter terms of trade (1995=100)

..

..

..

Foreign direct investment, net inflows in reporting country (WDI, current US$)

150.8 million

121.0 million

..

Present value of debt (current US$)

..

1.8 billion

..

Total debt service (TDS, current US$)

6.4 million

12.8 million

..

Short-term debt outstanding (DOD, current US$)

17.3 million

41.5 million

..

Aid per capita (current US$)

52.0

29.3

..

Source: World Development Indicators database, July 2000

People

Population: 11,626,520 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 2,667,768; female 2,587,590)
15-64 years: 52% (male 2,821,772; female 3,197,604)
65 years and over: 3% (male 143,016; female 208,770) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.49% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 41.05 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 16.2 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 48.24 years
male: 46.81 years
female: 49.75 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official), French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35%
male: 48%
female: 22% (1990 est.)

Provinces

Province / Khet

Provincial City / Krong

Distance from Phnom Penh

Population

Banteay Meanchey

Sereysophorn

351 km

Battambang

Battambang

291 km

Kampong Cham

Kampong Cham

124 km

Kampong Chhnang

Kampong Chhnang

93 km

Kampong Speu

Kampong Speu

48 km

Kampong Thom

Kampong Thom

162 km

Kampot

Kampot

148 km

Kandal

Takhmau

13 km

Koh Kong

Khemarak Phoumin

350 km

Kratie

Kratie

340 km

Mondulkiri

Sen Monorom

543 km

Preah Vihear

Tbeng Meanchey

292 km

Prey Veng

Prey Veng

91 km

Pursat

Pursat

186 km

Rattanakiri

Banlung

636 km

Siem Reap

Siem Reap

314 km

Stung Treng

Stung Treng

481 km

Svay Rieng

Svay Rieng

124 km

Takeo

Takeo

87 km

Uddor Meancheay

Samrong

420 km

Cities

Municipality / Krong

City / Krong

Distance from Phnom Penh

Population

Reach Thani Phnom Penh

Phnom Penh

0 km

Krong Kep-Bokor

Kep-Bokor

165 km

Krong Preah Sihanouk

Sihanoukville

214 km

Geography 

Location: The Kingdom of Cambodia is in Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 181,040 sq km
land: 176,520 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km

Land boundaries:
total: 2,572 km
border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnom Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 11%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment—current issues: illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand are resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked unrest in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December 1998

Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography—note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap

National Holidays

01 January: International New Year's Day

07 January: 7 January Day

08 March: International Women's Day

03 April: Cultural Day

13-14-15 April: Cambodian New Year

01 May: International Labor Day

17 May: Visak Bochea Day

21 May: Royal Ploughing Ceremony

01 June: International Children's Day

18 June: Queen's Birthday, samdech Preah Mohesey NORODOM MONINEATH SIHANOUK

24 September: Constitution Day, 5th Anniversary of Re Coronation of H.M. Preah Bat Samdech Preah NORODOM SIHANOUK

27-28-29 September: Pchum Ben Day

23 October: Paris Peace Accord on Cambodia

30-31 October: King's Birthday, H.M. Preah Bat and 01 November Samdech Preah NORODOM SIHANOUK

09 November: Independence Day

10-1 1-12 November: Water Festival, Moon Festival

10 December: UN Human Rights Day

 

Cambodian Festivals

Several festivals are held annually which are of interest to both international and domestic tourists. The major festivals are as follows:

Bonn Chaul Chhnam (13-15 April) is the traditional New Year's festival when Khmers clean and decorate their houses, make offerings and play traditional games.

Bonn Chroat Preah Nongkoal (6 May) is the Royal Ploughing Ceremony which inaugurates the planting season and involves symbolic ploughing and sowing of seed.

Bonn Dak Ben and Bonn Pchoum Ben (11-13 October) is the festival held for commemoration of the spirits of the dead; 15 days later offerings are made in the temples.

Bonn Kathen (October) is a 29-day religious festival when people march in procession to the temples where the monks change from their old to new robes.

His Majesty the King's Birthday (30 October-I November) is celebrated in regal fashion and the Royal Palace is sometimes open to the public.

Independence Day (9 November) celebrates the date when Cambodia achieved independence from France in 1953.

Bonn Om Took (24-26 November) is the water festival which ushers in the fishing season and marks the reversing of the current in the Tonle Sap River. This very popular festival attracts many people to watch the longboat races on the Tonle Sap in Phnom Penh, fireworks and a lighted flotilla of boats.

Etiquette

Behaviour Code

History

Very little is known about prehistoric Cambodia, although archeological evidence has established that prior to 1000 BC Cambodians subsisted on a diet of fish and rice and lived in houses on stilts, as they still do today. From the 1st to the 6th centuries, much of Cambodia belonged to the South-East Asian kingdom of Funan, which played a vital role in developing the political institutions, culture and art of later Khmer states. However, it was the Angkorian era, beginning in the 8th century, that really transformed the kingdom into an artistic and religious power.

Forces of the Thai kingdom of Ayudhya sacked Angkor in 1431, leaving the Khmers plagued by dynastic rivalries and continual warfare with the Thais for a century and a half. The Spanish and Portuguese, who had recently become active in the region, also played a part in these wars until resentment of their power led to the massacre of the Spanish garrison at Phnom Penh in 1599. A series of weak kings ruled from 1600 until the French arrived in 1863.

After some gunboat diplomacy and the signing of a treaty of protectorate in 1863, the French went on to force King Norodom to sign another treaty, this time turning his country into a virtual colony in 1884. A relatively peaceful period followed (even the peasant uprising of 1916 was considered peaceful). In 1941, on the assumption that he would prove suitably pliable, the French installed 19 year-old Prince Sihanouk on the Cambodian throne. This turned out to be a major miscalculation as the years after 1945 were strife-torn, with the waning of French colonial power aided by the proximity of the Franco-Viet Minh War that raged in Vietnam and Laos. Cambodian independence was eventually proclaimed in 1953, the enigmatic King Norodom Sihanouk going on to dominate national politics for the next 15 years before being overthrown by the army.

In 1969 the United States carpet-bombed suspected communist base camps in Cambodia, killing thousands of civilians and dragging the country unwillingly into the US-Vietnam conflict. American and South Vietnamese troops invaded the country in 1970 to eradicate Vietnamese communist forces but were unsuccessful; they did manage, however, to push Cambodia's leftist guerrillas (the Khmer Rouge) further into the country's interior. Savage fighting soon engulfed the entire country, with Phnom Penh falling to the Khmer Rouge in 1975.

Over the next four years the Khmer Rouge, under Pol Pot's leadership, systematically killed an estimated two million Cambodians (especially the educated) in a bid to turn Cambodia into a Maoist, peasant-dominated agrarian cooperative. Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, forcing the Khmer Rouge to flee to the relative sanctuary of the jungles along the Thai border. From there, they conducted a guerrilla war against the Vietnamese-backed government throughout the late 1970s and 1980s.

In mid-1993, UN-administered elections led to a new constitution and the reinstatement of Norodom Sihanouk as king. The Khmer Rouge boycotted the elections, rejected peace talks and continued to buy large quantities of arms from the Cambodian military leadership. In the months following the election, a government-sponsored amnesty secured the first defections from Khmer ranks, with more defections occurring from 1994 when the Khmer Rouge was finally outlawed by the Cambodian government.

The Royal Government of Cambodia, a coalition government between Cambodian People's Party (CPP) and Funcinpec in the new term, launched on 30 November 1998 its concrete political platform for the rehabilitation and development of the country in every sector It has placed priorities on strengthening peace, political stability, upholding democracy, rule of law, public administration reforms, military reforms, economic and public finance reforms, judicial reforms, economic development and poverty alleviation. In a conference held from 31st January - 03 February 1999, the Royal Government disseminated the main contents of this political platform to all ministries, institutions and local authorities for its implementation.

Since the general elections on 26 July 1998 and the formation of the coalition government, the main achievement has been the introduction of the pacification policy, which led to the peaceful end of Khmer Rouge military and political organization and the arrest in April 1999 of Khmer Rouge leader Ta Mok who will be put on trial soon. This achievement is the continuation of the great one obtained by the old government. The integration of former Royal Cambodian Armed Forces in their original units was undertaken in accordance with the government's political platform, This is the first time that the whole territory of the country has been controlled by a unique state that is legal, sovereign and legitimate. The Cambodian people throughout the country are joyfully united with their families and can travel freely to every part of the country during the Khmer traditional New Year, Phchum Ben Day and the new Millennium - year 2000 celebration.

 

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